By Arturo M. Baró, Ronald G. Reifenberger
This primary ebook to target all rules and features of AFM in liquid section is completely based, making it easy-to-follow for non-AFM experts. while, it truly is an exceptional advent for researchers wishing to take advantage of this significant method for comparing organic fabric and organic applications.
From the contents:
* AFM: simple concept
* Dynamic modes in liquids
* strength spectroscopy
* Forces in liquids
* unmarried molecule strength spectroscopy
* excessive answer imaging of organic material
* Imaging of force-distance curves
* excessive velocity AFM for looking at dynamic processes
* thought and fundamentals
* mix of AFM with optical methods
* organic purposes
* Electrochemical AFM
* Manipulation and lithography
An optimal stability for chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists, and biologists, in addition to analytical and medicinal chemists.
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Additional resources for Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid: Biological Applications
M. (1998) Jumping mode scanning force microscopy. Appl. Phys. , 73, 3300–3302. , and Marti, O. (1997) The simultaneous measurement of elastic, electrostatic and adhesive properties by scanning force microscopy: pulsed-force mode operation. Meas. Sci. , 8, 1333–1338. M. (2002) Scanning force microscopy jumping and tapping modes in liquids. Appl. Phys. , 81, 2620–2623. J. (2006) DNA-mediated anisotropic mechanical reinforcement of a virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. , 103, 13706–13711. F. (2006) Elastic response, buckling, and instability of microtubules under radial indentation.
3 Approaching (a) and withdrawing (b) force-extension curves for a mica surface immersed in different buffers. 5) and 2 mM MgOAc supplemented with KCl or extra MgOAc when stated. 5 nN, a rather large force when imaging biological materials. 5), 50 mM KCl, 50 mM MgOAc (dark yellow curve) shows an effective absence of adhesion and attractive force. 3 Cantilever Dynamics in Liquids According to Eq. 1), the spring constant k only depends on the material properties of the cantilever and its geometrical dimensions.
First, as a consequence of the large density of the surrounding liquid compared with the density of air, the cantilever suffers an increase of the effective mass by a factor of 10–40 and a corresponding decrease of the resonant frequency (Eq. 3)). Resonance and natural frequencies are related by Eq. 8). Therefore as a second consequence, the strong hydrodynamic interaction between the cantilever and the liquid produces a very low quality factor Q. 5) . The decrease in resonant frequency and Q has important consequences on the cantilever oscillation and therefore affects the performance of dynamic modes.