Download Apoptosis : physiology and pathology by Douglas R. Green, John C. Reed PDF

By Douglas R. Green, John C. Reed

"Apoptosis, or telephone loss of life, may be pathological, an indication of sickness and harm, or physiological, a strategy crucial for regular future health. This pathological dysregulation of telephone dying will be characterised via both an excessive amount of lack of crucial cells within the center, mind, and different tissues with little regenerative means or by way of too little phone turnover in self-renewing tissues, giving upward push to melanoma and different maladies. Read more...

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Extra info for Apoptosis : physiology and pathology

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Thus began the investigation of the role of the CD95/CD95L system in various diseases in which normal tissue is damaged. In the meantime, there is ample evidence for the involvement of the CD95 system in various diseases, including very strong evidence for its involvement in graft-versushost disease and some forms of acute hepatitis, but also data that indicate a role for this system in acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and spinal cord injury, among others. An additional and rather unexpected, but potentially quite broad, application of CD95L inhibitors was suggested recently when it was shown that instead of inducing apoptosis, CD95 can also induce migration in certain cancer cells, and that inhibition of CD95L was able to halt this effect.

The success of this technique proved that TNF can be used to treat cancer, albeit only when administration is locally restricted and by exerting its killing activity on an unexpected cellular target. Hence successful TNF treatment has mainly become a matter of targeted delivery to the tumor site. A molecular way of achieving targeted delivery is to create fusion proteins in which TNF is conjugated to antibody fragments or natural ligands that specifically recognize surface proteins on tumor cells or in the tumor stroma.

Experimental elevations in the expression of NAIP, XIAP, c-IAP1, or c-IAP2 protect neonatal motor neurons from axotomy. The ratio between XIAP and XAF-1 has been correlated with adult motor neuron protection and neonatal neuron sensitivity to axonal injury. NAIP and XIAP both appear to be necessary for preservation of motor neuron survival in rats after sciatic nerve axotomy. Interestingly, expression of XIAP increases in neurons after sciatic nerve injury, suggesting that it contributes to an endogenous defense mechanism.

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