By David C. Luckham, Friedrich W. von Henke, Bernd Krieg-Brueckner, Olaf Owe
This reference handbook of ANNA is one other quantity addressed to the ADA group. ANNA is a language extension of ADA to incorporate amenities for officially specifying the meant habit of ADA courses. it truly is designed to satisfy a perceived have to increase ADA with certain machine-processable annotations in order that good confirmed formal equipment of specification and documentation may be utilized to ADA courses. the present ANNA layout comprises annotations of all ADA constructs other than tasking. related extensions for formal specification could be made to different Algol-like languages equivalent to Pascal, PL/1, Concurrent Pascal, and Modula; primarily, those extensions will be subsets of ANNA. The layout of ANNA used to be undertaken from the start with 4 significant issues: 1. developing annotations might be effortless for the ADA programmer and will count up to attainable on notation and ideas of ADA. 2. ANNA may still own language positive factors which are typical within the specification and documentation of courses. three. ANNA should still offer a framework in which a few of the proven theories of officially specifying courses could be utilized to ADA. four. Annotations could be both like minded for various attainable purposes throughout the lifestyles cycle of a application. Such functions contain not just trying out, debugging and formal verification of a complete application, but in addition specification of application components throughout the past levels of necessities research and software design.
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Additional info for ANNA A Language for Annotating Ada Programs
3. 5). 4. A non-Scalar program variable is defined. A collection state is defined after elaboration of the access type; the current state of a package is defined after elaboration of the package body. 13 MODIFIERS 52 ANNA REFERENCE MANUAL 5. An indexed component is defined if all index expressions are defined and satisfy any Ada or Anna constraint on the index types, and the object it denotes is defined according to these rules. 6. e. X isin C is true, and the designated object is defined according to these rules.
If the sequence of collection operations contains more than one change of the complete object designated by an access value, the rightmost operation defines the value of the object designated by that access value in that state; similarly for multiple changes of a component of a designated object. Examples of collection states: T ' COLLECTION[new S] -- 7-he collection state resulting from the current state after an allocation, n e w S. ail => A] -- ---- The collection state after X. all => A] and X = T'COLLECTION'NEXT The collection state and value of X after, X : = new S'(A); for expression A, or after, X : = new S'A; for aggregate A.
Examples of annotations on a binary search loop statement: with in LOW <__ LOW and HIGH < in HIGH, LOW _< MID + 1 and MID < HIGH, ORDERED(A, in LOW, in HIGH), (ISININTERVAL(X, A, in LOW, in HIGH) --* ISININTERVAL(X, A, LOW, HIGH)); These object constraints must be true throughout the execution of the loop body. while LOW < HIGH loop MID := (LOW + HIGH) / 2; if X > A(MID) t h e n LOW := MID + 1; else HIGH := MID; e n d if; e n d loop; Example of an annotation inside a loop in a Square Root program: declare X : INTEGER := A; U,V : INTEGER := O; W : INTEGBR := I ; begin --IA>O; loop V := V + W; --I U * * 2 _ X a n d V = (U + 1) exit w h e n V > X; U ::U+I; W := W + 2; end loop; ** 2 a n d W = 2 * U + 1; Notice that the loop annotation is not true of every execution state of the loop.