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By J. Inczédy and I. Buzás (Auth.)

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In forming this order the valence of the ion and the volume of the hydrated ion play roles of similar import­ ance to those for the strongly acidic resins. The order of affinity for two strongly basic anion exchangers^ is as follows: Dowex 1: O H - < p - < acetate < HCO3" < CI" < NO2" < < HSO3- < C N - < B r - < NO3- < CIO3- < HSO4- < phenol- ate < I - ; Dowex 2 : F " < acetate < O H - < C I - < NO2" < HSO3- < < C N - < B r - < NO3" < C103~ < HSO4- < I - < phenolate. From the position of the hydroxyl ion in the order a conclusion can be drawn for the base strength of the anion exchanger.

10. Chemical OF ΙΟΝ EXCHANGERS 35 resistance While most silicate-based ion exchangers can be used only over a very small pH range (6-7) the synthetic-resin base ion exchangers are generally stable in acidic and alkaline solution. Both the condens­ ation- and polymerisation-type cation and anion exchangers possess good resistance to solutions of non-oxidising strong acids. Some analytical procedures prescribe 9-10 Ν hydrochloric acid solution for the separation of metal ions (see Chapter 6). Condensation-type cation exchangers suffer a loss by the action of solutions of strong alkalies.

Pokó, Acta Chim. Acad. Sei. , 1961, 2 9 , 1. 57. G. W. Bodamer and R. Kunin, Ind. Eng. , 1953, 4 5 , 2577. 58. O. D. Bonner, J. Chem. Educ, 1957, 3 4 , 174. 59. Chih-Hsien, E. M. Savitskaya and B. P. Bruns, Vysokomolekulyarnye Soyedineniya, 1960, 2 , 751; Chem. , 1961, 5 5 , 7989. CHAPTER 3 THEORY OF OPERATION OF ION EXCHANGERS IN THE beginning the development of theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins was unable to keep level with the rapid develop­ ment of their applications, and the analyst had to be satisfied with em­ pirical relations to describe ion-exchange processes.

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