By Haim D Rabinowitch, Lesley Currah
The Alliums are one of the most historical cultivated vegetation and contain onions, garlic, leeks and different similar vegetation. the first objective of this ebook is to assemble, in one quantity, updated wisdom got by means of numerous clinical disciplines, from the fundamental molecular point, to program within the box, of the allium vegetation. It includes commissioned chapters on themes that experience proven significant advances quite within the final 10 years similar to molecular biology, floriculture and agronomy. members contain top international specialists from Europe, the united states, Japan and New Zealand.
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Extra resources for Allium crop science : recent advances
Enzymatic decomposition products of alliin, present in all plant parts, have antibacterial and antifungal activity (see Keusgen, Chapter 15, this volume) and cause the intense and specific odour. Like onion, garlic has been used by humans from very ancient times, when the historical traces fade away and cannot be followed either to a wild ancestor or even to the exact area of domestication. For taxonomic reasons, its wild ancestor (if still extant, or its close relatives) should grow anywhere in an area from the Mediterranean to southern Central Asia.
This species is consumed by inhabitants of the Pskem and Chatkal valleys, who frequently transplant it from the wild to their gardens, where it is cultivated and propagated (Levichev and Krassovskaja, 1981). Perhaps, thousands of years ago, overcollecting made bulbs of the onion’s ancestor scarce, thus stimulating their transfer into gardens and so initiating domestication (Hanelt, 1986a). Further human and natural selection probably favoured a change in allometric growth pattern towards bulbs, a shortening of the life cycle of the plants to bienniality and adaptation to many environments (Hanelt, 1990).
The phenotypically extremely variable subgenus Melanocrommyum is well delimited and thus occupies a special evolutionary branch of the genus. For instance, all hitherto investigated species contain only a few cysteine sulphoxides and inactive alliinase, and many plants of this taxon are therefore odourless (Keusgen, 1999). M. Fritsch and N. Friesen increased in the very arid climates of the Near and Middle East to Central Asia. Its recent geographical speciation centre in Central Asia (c. , 1999).