By John Freely
Aladdin’s Lamp is the attention-grabbing tale of ways old Greek philosophy and technological know-how all started within the 6th century B.C. and, through the subsequent millennium, unfold around the Greco-Roman international, generating the amazing discoveries and theories of Thales, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes, Galen, Ptolemy, and so on. John Freely explains how, because the darkish a long time shrouded Europe, students in medieval Baghdad translated the works of those Greek thinkers into Arabic, spreading their principles in the course of the Islamic global from significant Asia to Spain, with many Muslim scientists, so much significantly Avicenna, Alhazen, and Averroës, including their very own interpretations to the philosophy and technology that they had inherited. Freely is going directly to convey how, starting within the 12th century, those texts via Islamic students have been then translated from Arabic into Latin, sparking the emergence of contemporary technology on the sunrise of the Renaissance, which climaxed within the clinical Revolution of the 17th century.
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Extra resources for Aladdin's Lamp: How Greek Science Came to Europe Through the Islamic World
Cf. Flori 1983, 143. 135. Miracula s. Benedicti V,4 (Head and Landes 1992b, app. A, 342). Adalbero mounted Odilo’s soldiers on asses too: “Ascendant asinum bini, denique camelum! ” Poème lines 142 – 43. 01-C1880 10/30/01 12:20 PM Page 26 26 Chapter 1 deﬁned place. 137 In this scheme, too, warriors had a designated place—in the ﬁrst division. ” 138 Socializing the soldiers, however, took more than ﬁtting them into a well-ordered social scheme. The problem at the beginning of the second millennium lay not so much in deﬁning the professional soldiers as in limiting the violence perpetrated by this group.
01-C1880 10/30/01 12:21 PM Page 30 30 Chapter 1 ing or employ their arms under the Church’s direction. 165 In his exposition, the Church had the jurisdictional right of coercive action. 166 The Church’s material coercive power was independent of the coercive power of secular princes and could be exercised against them by the Church itself. 169 Secular princes had to fulﬁl their ap- 163. Protocol of the Autumn Roman Synod, 1078, c. 6, in Gregory VII Register VI, 5b (p. 404). Cf. 1: 242. The canon was incorporated into Gratian’s Decretum.
142. McGinn 1978, 38 –39; Morris 1991, 143 ff. Erdmann 1935 remains a reference work. 146 But the two points of primary interest here are, ﬁrst, the Church’s taking in its own hands command over the use of arms and, second, its deﬁning the mode and purpose of military action. The Peace of God and Truce of God movements, as we have already seen, relied on the force of arms. 149 The peace movement created a situation in which Church dignitaries—alone or in collaboration with lay princes— either threatened to command or actually commanded the employment of arms.