By Mitsuo Niinomi, Takayuki Narushima, Masaaki Nakai
This publication reports basic advances within the use of steel biomaterials to reconstruct not easy tissues and blood vessels. It additionally covers the newest advances in consultant metal biomaterials, reminiscent of stainless steels, Co-Cr alloys, titanium and its alloys, zirconium, tantalum and niobium established alloys. moreover, the newest findings on corrosion, cytotoxic and allergic difficulties brought on by metal biomaterials are brought. The ebook bargains a precious reference resource for researchers, graduate scholars and clinicians operating within the fields of fabrics, surgical procedure, dentistry, and mechanics.
Mitsuo Niinomi, PhD, D.D.Sc., is a Professor on the Institute for fabrics learn, Tohoku college, Japan.
Takayuki Narushima, PhD, is a Professor on the division of fabrics Processing, Tohoku collage, Japan.
Masaaki Nakai, PhD, is an affiliate Professor on the Institute for fabrics learn, Tohoku college, Japan.
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Additional info for Advances in Metallic Biomaterials: Tissues, Materials and Biological Reactions
2 Joint: Normal Anatomy, Function, and Pathological Condition 35 Fig. 5 Ball-and-socket joint (hip joint) Ball-and-Socket Joint Ball-and-socket joint consists of the hemispherical bony head and the concave bony fossa such as hip joint (femoral head and acetabulum) and shoulder joint (humeral head and glenoid cavity). This joint shows a large range of motion because of triaxial motion. Hip joint is anatomically ball-and-socket joint and has a large range of motion, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation (Fig.
22). 6 Summary In this chapter, bone structure was described as hierarchical, and anisotropic tissues were shown to be composed primarily of BAp/collagen. Load support, one of the important functions of bone, is regulated by microstructural anisotropy, including prior orientation of the BAp/collagen. Therefore, the development of a biomaterial considering only BMD and bone mass is insufficient. Bone tissue homeostasis is generally maintained, and bone remodeling progresses due to osteoblasts that form Cell orientation angle (degree) -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Cell orientation angle (degree) -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 50 µm Appearance frequency (%) Appearance frequency (%) Appearance frequency (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 50 µm Cell orientation angle (degree) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 50 µm osteoblast 10% strain Cell orientation angle (degree) -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 Slip trace -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 5% strain Fig.
62], Copyright 2012, with permission from Elsevier) 0 5 10 15 20 25 50 µm 3% strain Appearance frequency (%) Control (0% strain) 1 Bone Tissue and Biomaterial Design Based on the Anisotropic Microstructure 25 26 T. 6 Degree of BAp orientation Intensity ratio of (002)/(211) Bone matrix anisotropy Fig. 21 Osteoblast alignment along the substrate collagen molecular orientation. Actin stress fibers elongate along the substrate collagen orientation, while the degree of cell alignment is controlled by the level of substrate collagen anisotropy (Reproduced from Ref.