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By American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Policy and Global Affairs, Security, and Cooperation Development, Committee on Assessing Fundamental Attitudes of

An analogous applied sciences that gasoline clinical advances additionally pose power risks--that the information, instruments, and strategies won via valid biotechnology learn should be misused to create organic guns or for bioterrorism. this can be referred to as the twin use challenge of the lifestyles sciences. but even examine with the best power for misuse may well provide major advantages. picking out the right way to constrain the chance with out harming crucial medical examine is important for nationwide defense in addition to prosperity and future health. This booklet discusses a 2007 survey of yankee organization for the development of technology (AAAS) participants within the lifestyles sciences approximately their wisdom of twin use matters and attitudes approximately their duties to aid mitigate the hazards of misuse in their examine. total, the implications recommend that there is massive aid for techniques to oversight that depend on measures which are constructed and carried out via the medical neighborhood itself. The responses additionally recommend that there's a have to make clear the scope of study actions of shock and to supply counsel approximately what activities scientists can take to minimize the chance that their study can be misused by way of people with malicious purpose.

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Extra info for A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Example text

Anthrax attacks in 2001, discussions within the government and the life sciences community began to consider whether there was SBU information in the life sciences that posed a national security risk and if so what should be done to mitigate the potential for misuse. 10 The Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Office of Management and Budget consulted with the scientific and academic communities in several meetings conducted in 2002 about potential policies to define and constrain unclassified information in the life sciences that could be used for bioterrorism (Check 2002a, b).

Even if we do not like it, we must nonetheless follow it (while working to change it) or risk . . being prosecuted for being an outlaw. . Americans can go to jail for violating the law, but not for violating codes of ethics. We aspire to uphold ethics—we deserve praise (at least some) for behaving ‘ethically’; whereas we deserve none for simply following the law, some of which is in fact made up of ‘legal technicalities’” (Annas 2006). 31 The Memorandum stated that “This does not preclude research into those offensive aspects of bacteriological/biological agents necessary to determine what defensive measures are required” (White House 1969:3).

Prior to the statements by the Journal Editors and Authors Group, Ron Jackson and his colleagues brought the potential dual use issues of their work on IL-4 insertion into mousepox virus to the attention of the Australian government officials before going ahead with the publication (Cohen 2002; Federation of American Scientists 2008a). Following publication and the ensuing controversy, the research was terminated because of concerns about its dual use potential (Federation of American Scientists 2008a).

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