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By Christine Ekholst

A Punishment for every felony is the 1st in-depth research of ways gender motivated Swedish medieval legislations. Christine Ekholst demonstrates how the legislations codes steadily and inconsistently brought ladies as attainable perpetrators for all critical crimes. The legislation exhibit that legislators not just anticipated women and men to dedicate kinds of crimes; in addition they punished women and men in numerous methods in the event that they have been convicted. The legislation constantly stipulated various tools of executions for women and men; whereas males have been hanged or damaged at the wheel, girls have been buried alive, stoned, or burned on the stake. A Punishment for every legal explores the heritage to the $64000 legislative alterations that happened whilst girls have been made in my opinion accountable for their very own crimes.

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Additional info for A Punishment for Each Criminal: Gender and Crime in Swedish Medieval Law

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4 Furthermore, Per-Edwin Wallén emphasises that 1 Österberg and Lindström, Crime and Social Control, 60. 2 Valérie Toureille, Vol et brigandage au Moyen Âge (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2006), 3. 3 Wennström, Tjuvnad och fornæmi, 20, 70–71. 4 Nicole Gonthier, Le châtiment du crime au Moyen Âge (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 1998), 26. 5 In addition to these two serious crimes there are also many different lesser property crimes. In Swedish medieval law these are often collected under the terms fornæmi or rättlösa.

24 ÖgL, Byggningabalken 27, 49. DL, Byggningabalken 28. 25 ÄVgL, Förnämessaker 2 §3. YVgL, Förnämesbalken 14. 26 Hemmer, Studier rörande straffutmätningen, 368. 27 Hemmer, Studier rörande straffutmätningen, 218, 221. See: DL, Byggningabalken 28. UL, Byggningabalken 14 §4. The Södermanna Law states that lower fines shall be collected after a conviction and, furthermore, that the men who were supposed to accompany the plaintiff when he collected the fines should be chosen and named at the local court assembly.

These rules also concern vandalism: when someone drives a horse and wagon over another person’s uncut meadow or destroys fences. ”13 Despite the fact that the rules are diverse and give a scattered impression as to how any specific crime was perceived and how each crime was supposed to be punished, there are still some very clear tendencies that provide us with a general picture of the local community and its legal culture. This overall structure between the different provincial laws is consistent and also characterises the Laws of the Realm, with the important exception that the two Laws of the Realm prioritise the owner’s rights over any communal right to borrow and use tools.

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