By Lois N. Magner
Stressing significant issues within the historical past of medication, this moment variation explores the occasions, methodologies, and theories that formed clinical practices in many years earlier and in smooth medical perform. It highlights practices of civilizations world wide and examine of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our present realizing of healthiness and sickness. New sections hide preventive and replacement medication, clinical schooling for ladies, miasma and contagion theories, the specter of epidemic disorder, altering styles of morbidity and mortality, public well-being and sanitary reforms, the excessive expense of therapy, ailments of affluence and getting older, and the emergence of recent illnesses.
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Even though nosocomial, or hospital-acquired, infections were good cataloged and are quite good understood, conventional recommendations have didn't thoroughly put off the matter. Even the main smooth hospitals locate themselves stymied by way of the endurance of those pathogens in health center wards and working rooms.
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Additional info for A History of Medicine, Second Edition
Paleopathology: Disease in the Fossil Record. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Sandford, M. , ed. (1993). Investigations of Ancient Human Tissue: Chemical Analyses in Anthropology. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach. Stead, I. , Bourke, J. , and and Brothwell, D. (1986). Lindow Man. The Body in the Bog. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Steinbock, R. T. (1976). Paleopathological Diagnosis and Interpretation: Bone Diseases in Ancient Human Populations. Springﬁeld, IL: Thomas. Ubelaker, D. H. (1999).
To Greeks and Romans, Egypt was an ancient and exotic land, with peculiar customs, especially in terms of gender roles. Shops and markets in Egypt were run by women and men did the weaving. Collecting Egyptian antiquities was already fashionable in Roman times, but modern Egyptology begins with the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, a slab of black basalt inscribed with a message in three forms of writing: hieroglyphic Egyptian, demotic Egyptian, and the Greek alphabet. Formal hieroglyphs, ‘‘the words of the gods,’’ were not only a way of writing, but also a form of artistic expression.
But identiﬁcations were generally tentative and sometimes incorrect because many tombs and mummies had been vandalized by grave robbers. Egyptian priests rescued and rewrapped many royal mummies, but the bodies often ended up in mismatched cofﬁns with new identities. Researchers are now able to convert data from CT scans into realistic three-dimensional (3D) images of mummies without removing the outer wrappings. Using this method, scientists can explore previously unknown aspects of Egyptian burial rituals and ﬁnd artifacts placed inside mummies, such a ceramic bowl that appeared in images of the head of a three thousand-year-old mummy.